[MUSIC PLAYING] JEFFREY VAN GOGH: Good afternoon. I’m Jeffrey van Gogh. I’m a tech lead manager on the Android Studio team where I’m in charge of the D8R8 Compiler Project. So last year a lot happened in compiler space. We added incremental dexing, which makes your debugger build faster. We added desugaring of Java 8 language features. So you can now use Java 8 features like Lambdas in older versions of Android. We added a new dexers, which compiles your Java bytecode to Dalvik bytecode that runs from the art runtime.
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We added a new shrink and optimizer called R8. And we added sculpin specific optimizations into that as well. And then today, we also have the Android app bundle. And so I wanted to talk to you about all of these, show how it works inside Gradle, and give you some tips of things you need to know when you start using these new tools. So let’s first start looking at incremental dexing. So here, you have a very, very simplified version of what happens in Gradle when the compiler runs. So first we run either Java C or Kotlin C to take your Java or open source code and generate Java bytecode. And then we run DX that takes a Java bytecode and produces Dalvik bytecode. Now the nice thing that in Gradle, because of Gradle and Jet Brains’ work, Java C and Kotlin C are actually incremental. And that means that if you change one source file, it only compiles that one source file and potentially any sources that have different semantics based on that change. Now unfortunately, in Android Studio and Gradle, before 3.0, DX didn’t do any incremental work. So it still took all your Java class files and compiled each one of them to Dalvik bytecode, even if those class files haven’t changed. So in Android Studio 3.0 and above, we actually change it so that we can be incremental. So we split the DX and do two steps. One that takes the Java bytecode and compiles it to the Dalvik bytecode. And we do that per class file. So we actually generate now one dex file per class file. And that way, that step can be incremental. And then after that, we take all those dex files and merge them into a single or multiple dex files if needed. And the reason this works is that most of the time spent in dexing is actually in the compilation phase, where we take the Java bytecode, which is a stack-based machine, to Dalvik bytecode, which is register-based. And then the dex merging is more or less like a fancy concat. And so that’s a lot faster. And so we enable it by default in your debug builds. In release builds, we don’t do that. And so you pay a little bit extra for the initial build, because we need to generate more files. But then each incremental build that do you afterwards, it’s a lot faster, just because we have to do less work. There are some things you need to be aware of, though. So Java C and Kotlin C are only incremental when you are not using annotation processors. Any time you enable annotation processors, these annotation processors can reach into any part of your source. And so we cannot make that incremental. Now, Gradle is working hard to make that supported. So in Gradle 4.7, they introduce a preliminary support for incremental annotation processors. This requires some work by the annotation processor to support that, because annotation processor needs to tell Gradle how incremental it can be. And so what I’d like to ask you all is if you are an annotation processor writer, look at the stuff the Gradle is doing and see if you can support that. And if you’re using annotation processors, please read out to the developers of those that they should look at this, because it will really, really speed up your bills. So let’s go on to desugaring. What is desugaring? We hear from all people, they have it many times that they want to use modern Java features, Java 8, like lambdas, default methods and interfaces, try-with resources, et cetera. Unfortunately, a lot of these features require new bytecode and language APIs to support them. And of course, a lot of Android devices out there run older versions of the Dalvik VM that doesn’t yet support these. And the developers really want to use these features, especially as they start using new frameworks like re-active extensions. Now, I’m not sure exactly what these libraries do, but they use a lot of callbacks. And it would be much nicer if you can use lambdas there. And so what we do with desugar is we take the bytecode and calls that are generated by these new features in the Java compiler, and we convert them to something that is supported in the old system. So for instance, if you use a lambda in Java 8, we can take that and replace it with a class as if you were to handwrite it, so that you don’t have to handwrite it and we do it for you. So let’s take a look at how that works in practice. So let’s switch to the demo. So here for Android Studio project, that is just created by following the wizards and selecting a basic activity. And so if you go to the module and the module settings. You’ll see that I have set the source language to 1.8. And now it will allow me to write Java 8 language features. And if you do this, Gradle automatically figures out that it needs to run desugar for you. And so here I have some code. I have a floating action button that I want to hook up some code to, that when you click it– and all because I use Java 8, I don’t have to write new OnClickListener and implement the whole interface. Instead, I can just write a lambda and have it in be invoked. So if I go and look at the output of the Java C compiler, there is a main activity of class. And I can copy that path. There is a tool in the Java JDK called Java P, which allows you to take a class file and look at the bytecode that’s in there. And so I’ll run that. And because it generates a lot of output, I’ll pipe it to a file. And then I’m opening it in my favorites ID, Android Studio. And so if you haven’t looked at Java bytecode, don’t be afraid. It is still pretty high-level. It’s kind of readable. The only thing that’s not there is for loops, if statements, and so on. But like, if you read through it, it’s still pretty understandable. So just a lot of constants that we’re just going to skip over. And then here, we have your onCreate method that we were looking at. And in first call here, you see that there is a virtual call to the set OnClickListener. That’s the thing where we passed our lambda to. And then see that the argument before that is this invoked dynamic construction. And it tells us that it’s going to pass this OnClickListener. So what does invoke dynamic? It’s a nice feature in the Java VM that is kind of reflective. So instead of the VM immediately invoking your method, it allows the application to provide a hook in there and dispatch the method anyway you want. And so in Java, they have these things called metafactories that they use to implement these features. And so there is the specific LambdaMetafactory. And you see that here in the bottom of the file. Let’s get this argument to view. And then it passes to this lambda onCreate method, which we can see here as well. And if you look carefully, you see that it actually has the snack bar codes that we had in the body of our lambda. So what is going on here is that the first time the app is run on the JVM, it knows it needs to call this LambdaMetafactory. And that thing will actually generate the class that implements the interface on the fly. And then it will call that for the rest of the program. Now the problem is that that takes time at runtime. It adds more memory at runtime. So we don’t do that on an Androids, even in newer version of Android. And of course, in old version of Android, they don’t know about this invoke dynamic construction or the metafactory. So instead, desugar will take care of this. So let’s take a look at what’s happened in this project and when you build it using desugar. So I’m going to open the APK. There is this tool in Android Studio 3.0 and above called the APK Analyzer. It allows you to look inside the APK, both for file size of your resources, but also to see what’s inside the dex code that’s going to run on the device. So here I see all the packages in the dex codes. And I’m going to navigate to my main activity, and then the onCreate method. And I’m going to say show bytecode. So you see bytecode that is kind of similar to Java bytecode. There’s a couple of differences. Instead of using stack-based machines, we have registers. But if you are not familiar with that, don’t worry about that. So at the end of the method, we see the same call to the set OnClickListener. But the big difference is that one line above, it doesn’t show invoke dynamic or invoke custom as it would be on Android. Instead, it calls this magic class dash dash tilde lambda, and then it gets the interface field of that. So let’s take a look at that class. So you see that the class is right along there. And so what we see in the class is that it implements the OnClickListener interface. It has a static field instance. And then it has the onClick method for the OnClickListener interface. And all it does is call the generated method it contained to method body for lambda. And so now there is no Java 8 features, no Java 8 bytecodes in this code. And we can execute it on any Android version, even as low as Ice Cream Sandwich. So let’s switch back to the slides. So this is how that is integrated into the Gradle build system. After the Java C compiler runs, we run the separate process called desugar. What it does, it reads the Java bytecode. It takes out all these functions that are not supported, emits new bytecodes, and then we pass it on to DX. And so the rest of the pipeline doesn’t have to know anything about desugaring. So this is nice. You can use new Java 8 features. There’s a couple of things you need to be aware of if you do your own bytecode transformations. So there’s people who do their own bytecode transformations for code injection, crest reporting, et cetera. Because we you run desugar, we run your bytecode transformations after desugar, which means that you see all our crazy patterns like the dollar lambda codes when you’re doing your own processing. So be aware of that if you’re doing your own bytecode transformations. So let’s move on to D8. D8 is our new dexer. As I said, Android, it runs Dalvik bytecode, not Java bytecode. And dexer is the tool that takes Java bytecodes from the stack-based machine and converts it into Dalvik bytecode, which is register-based. We had this tool before called DX, but it’s pretty old. People had problems with it. And so we decided to build a new version called D8. And so the reason we build it is we want to have faster completion, because everybody always wants faster builds, we want to generate smaller code, and give people better diagnostics. By better diagnostics, I mean both the error messages that you get when you run the compiler as well as better debug information that when you’re running your app in the debugger, that you have a better understanding of what is going on. So how is D8 integrated into the Gradle build system? It’s actually quite similar to what DX is. We just swap out the X for D8. The interesting thing there is that in Android Studio 3.2, we also integrate the desugaring step into D8. So that saves us a round trip between reading and writing the class files. And so it will provide more speed up. The side effect of that, though, is that if you’re writing your own bytecode rewriters, we now run them before D8, which means that your bytecode rewriters have to support the Java 8 language. So let’s look at the demo of D8 in action. So here, I have another project that I just created using the Project Wizard. And then because I’m using Android Studio 3.2, D8 is already enabled by default. So I went into the Gradle property files and I explicitly disabled D8 because I want to show you the behavior of DX before we use D8. So in my main application, I added some code to my OnClickListener to have the snack bar print a custom message. And then I have a method get message, and I set a breakpoint. So let’s look at that when I run that in the emulator on the debugger. So the app is running. And I’m going to hit the button so that I hit the break point. So I initialize x to be the length of the empty string. So that should be 0. And so in the if statement, I expect to step through the true case. And of course, that’s what happens. And I’m going to step further. This is bizarre, right? I don’t expect my code to evaluate both the true and false case. So that’s kind of weird. So let’s see what happens if I run and see what the output is. So luckily, the output on the screen is hello there, what I expected. But there was something weird going on. But what was going on? So let’s remove this, and sync our Gradle build so that we are switching to D8. And let’s stop that and redeploy it. So while this is going on– so in DX we have this issue. And it was actually a very high start bug report. And the reason it was happening is that not only is the VM very different between stack and register, the way that debug information is stored in Java, the class files, and Dalvik is very different. In Java, it starts with the instructions, and in Dalvik, it’s a state machine. And so we had to translate both from sector register and the debug information. And so sometimes information got lost. So it might end up with a single return statement in the Dalvik bytecode, and then we couldn’t map that in the debug information. In D8, we track all the debug information carefully. And we have a whole system of assertions to make sure that we don’t lose debug information. So let’s hit the button here. We’re hitting the break point again. We step through. We’re getting to the truth branch. And we jump out of it. [APPLAUSE] Thank you. So let’s switch back to the slides. So we have done a lot of work on D8. It has better debug information, but it’s also faster. So here are some data around build time on the Google Nest app. So we shipped D8 as a preview in Android Studio 3.1. There were not always faster, but we had a lot more work since 3.1. And so in 3.2, on average, we’re about 16% faster in clean builds. And of course, incremental to builds, the delta is smaller because there is less code to compile. So still, 16% is pretty nice. So D8 is already widely used. If you’re using Android P beta, that was a release yesterday, Android P is completely built with D8. The Google Docs app is already built with D8, and then Google Photos is right now in Canary using D8. And many more Google apps will follow soon. So let’s move over to R8. R8 is our new shrinker. So why do you want a shrinker? So most people who build apps, they use a lot of libraries like Google [INAUDIBLE],, Apache Commons, RX Java, and you usually don’t use that full library. The IP might use maybe 10%, 15% of that library. Yet, if you ship it as is, you would be shipping all that code that you don’t use. And application size is important, right? People don’t want to pay for it in their bandwidth. It uses disk space on the device. And so the smaller app, the better. And there was a previous solution to this, the ProGuard tool. But we hear from people that they have issues with it. It was taking a long time. The code wasn’t as small as they wish. It didn’t really understand Android. And so we invested in building a new shrinker. We also made the error messages clearer. And of course, we understood that people are already using ProGuard, and so we decided that we wanted to be ProGuard compatible. And so we understand all of ProGuard’s keep rules. So how does ProGuard work? [INAUDIBLE] So before in Gradle, we would run ProGuard between your Java compilation and the dex generation. And the reason for that is that ProGuard is a Java-to-Java compilation. And so this added more time to your build. In Android Studio 3.2, you can enable our R8. It’s still experimental. You can enable it using the setting. And what will happen is it will replace ProGuard, desugar, D8 with one single process, R8, that does all of those steps in one go. So we ran R8 on several apps internally. This is the Nest app data. So by just swapping ProGuard for R8, we’re able to save 100K on the dex file size, and save 25% in compilation time. Now, the Nest app is highly optimized. It has very specific ProGuard keep rules, and still we were able to save quite a bit of space. We also run this on some of the system apps that are shipping with the Android OS, and on average were able to save 25% of the dex file size by just swapping ProGuard with R8. So of course, last year we announced that Kotlin is now a supported language on Android. And so we figured we need to do something for Kotlin as well. Kotlin this is amazing language. It allows you to write very succinct codes. But of course, if you write a succinct code, and it’s so powerful, it needs to generate a lot of bytecode. And so we looked into places what we could strength that further than the standard analysis.
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And so we found a couple places where we could do things like class merging, especially around lambdas, we do more nullness analysis, et cetera. So let’s take a look at that demo. So here I have a Kotlin application. For those of you haven’t programmed Kotlin, this is a data class, which is a class that it generates a lot of code for you. So you have a couple fields here that are really properties. So it generates getters and setters, equals, get hash code, et cetera. And then here, I have an extension method that tells it that if I see a collection that’s instantiated to the type car, at this extra method, it allows me to search for make and model. And so in the class, I’m using the sequence operators of Kotlin to do a couple of filters and groupize. Now, normally you wouldn’t write this many filters in a row. You would probably just put all the Boolean logic in one filter. But they wanted to show you what happens with multiple filters. So normally, Kotlin will compile each of these lambdas into its own class. And so each lambda you use adds a new class. And that’s not really what you want in a dex file, because you always want to keep the methods reference count low. So let’s take a look at what happens when we do with R8. In this project, enabled R8 by setting this property. And let’s take a look what happens in the output APK. So here, my class is dex again. The main activity– and I added a call to that method, in the onCreate method. And so here in the onCreate method, you see that there is this new instance to this lambda group class. And the interesting thing is that lambda group class is not defined in a package. It’s defined at the top level. So let’s take a look at that. Here in the dex file, there is this [INAUDIBLE] lambda group class. And you see it implements the Kotlin function one interface. And it has two instance fields. One, which is of type objects, is named capture, and the other one is ID. And then the constructor takes both the ID and the objects and sets the variables. And then here, in the invoke method, we see that it has this packet switched. And so what we’re doing is we’re regenerating, basically, the bytecode equivalent of a switch statement. We switch over the ID that was passed into the constructor to figure out which piece of code to call. And so if you scroll through here, you’ll see that the call to get here, the property read model, are all in this piece of code. And then you see here that we have the switch. And so what is going on is we find that we have lambdas that are of the same signature, basically they implement the same interface, and they have the same capture variables. And so we can take all the different lambdas and merge them into one class, which allows you to have less metadata and less method references. So let’s switch back to the slides. Kotlin is something we’re very excited about, and it’s becoming more and more important. And so with R8, we’re going to keep adding new optimizations for Kotlin. We’re doing the lambda merging, no analysis, and we’re adding many more. And so hopefully, R8 will really help you get your Kotlin code even smaller. Lastly, we announced Android app bundle yesterday. One of the things that comes with Android app bundle is dynamic features. And so you cannot only split your APK by resources, languages, et cetera. You can now also split your features into multiple APKs. And that’s of course, great, because not everybody uses every feature of your app. And now the downside– and we heard this already with Instant Apps last year– instead, it makes it harder to run ProGuard or R8 over your app, because these tools, they are based on doing whole program analysis. And now you don’t have a single program anymore. And so what we came up with is a way to take all your different features, add them, and pass them as one command line into ProGuard or R8 so that it is effectively a whole program. And then program R8 will spit out a single jar or dex file. And then we can take that information, the ProGuard mapping file and the original feature jars, and with that information, we have enough data to reconstitute the different dex files. And so we have this new dex splitter, which is based on the D8 code base. And it will spit out the whole program again into different modules. And now you can apply shrinking and optimizations to your features as well. So this is coming soon. It will be in Android Studio 3.2 by the time it reaches stable. So we looked at a whole bunch of different compiler work that we’ve done over the last year. Some of it is already stable. Incremental dexing, it was introduced in Android Studio 3.0, desugar stand alone was Studio 3.0. In Android Studio 3.2 we’re enabling D8 and desugaring as part of that. And then in Android Studio 3.2, we’re introducing R8 as an experimental feature. Please use it. We announced that DX will be deprecated as soon as we find no more major issues in D8. So before even a year or so, DX will be gone. So we’d like you to try it out. File bugs– so if you go in Android Studio to the Help menu, there is a Submit Feedback option, which will immediately dump you into the Issue Tracker. And then you can easily file a bug. Our team is very responsive to these bugs. There is another session tomorrow that’s called Effective ProGuard Keep Rules for Smaller Applications. And it’s basically a how-to on how to start using ProGuard or R8 by one of the developers on the R8 team. Please fill out the survey on the Google.com I/O schedule about this talk as well. Thanks, everybody! [MUSIC PLAYING]